New research has uncovered a direct link between changes in the earth's crust three billion years ago and the introduction of free oxygen to the atmosphere. Without these changes, oxygen could have been suppressed in earth's crust forever, so the findings help explain the emergence of life on our planet.
New research resolves 40 years of debate about the strength of olivine, the most abundant mineral in the Earth's mantle. Measuring the strength of olivine is critical to understanding how strong tectonic plates are, which, in turn, matters to how plates break and create subduction zones.
Scientists say that a large, now extinct, frog called Beelzebufo that lived about 68 million years ago in Madagascar would have been capable of eating small dinosaurs. The conclusion comes from a study of the bite force of South American horned frogs from the living genus Ceratophrys, known as Pacman frogs for their characteristic round […]
The best known sauropod dinosaurs were huge herbivorous creatures, whose brain structures were markedly different from those of their evolutionary predecessors, for the earliest representatives of the group were small, lithe carnivores.
The idea of being bitten by a nearly toothless modern frog or salamander sounds laughable, but their ancient ancestors had a full array of teeth, large fangs and thousands of tiny hook-like structures called denticles on the roofs of their mouths that would snare prey, according to paleontologists.